Peonies, with their lush foliage and extravagant blooms, have captivated garden enthusiasts and floral aficionados alike for centuries. Renowned for their vibrant colors, intoxicating fragrance, and show-stopping presence, peonies can elevate any garden or bouquet. Whether you’re a seasoned gardener or a novice eager to add these timeless perennials to your collection, this guide will walk you through everything you need to know about peony plant care.

Types of Peonies

Before we dive into the care specifics, it’s important to understand the different types of peonies available. There are three main categories: herbaceous, tree, and intersectional (also known as ITOH) peonies.

Herbaceous Peonies

Herbaceous peonies are the most common type of peonies, and they are the traditional variety that most people are familiar with. These plants have soft stems that die back in the winter and reemerge in the spring. They come in a wide range of colors and can produce flowers up to six inches in diameter.

Tree Peonies

Tree peonies, also known as woody or shrub peonies, are larger and have a longer blooming season than herbaceous peonies. They produce woody stems that remain year-round and can grow up to four feet tall. Their flowers are also larger, often reaching up to ten inches in diameter.

Intersectional Peonies (ITOH)

Intersectional peonies, a relatively newer variety, are a cross between herbaceous and tree peonies. They have the sturdy stems of tree peonies and the foliage and flower form of herbaceous peonies. Intersectional peonies are also known for their extended blooming season, often producing flowers for six to eight weeks.

Planting and Location

Peonies thrive in well-draining, nutrient-rich soil that is slightly acidic. They prefer full sun but can tolerate some light shade. When choosing a planting location, make sure to select an area with good air circulation to prevent disease and promote healthy growth.

Introduction to Peonies

Peonies, scientifically known as Paeonia, are flowering plants native to Asia, Europe, and North America. They belong to the family Paeoniaceae and are closely related to roses. Peonies come in a variety of colors such as pink, white, red, and yellow, but also in various forms including single, double, and bomb. In addition to their beauty, peonies have a rich history and symbolism. In Chinese culture, for example, they are considered the “king of flowers” and represent prosperity, good fortune, and romance.

Types of Peonies

There are three main categories of peonies: herbaceous (also known as garden or bush peonies), tree, and intersectional (also known as Itoh) peonies. Herbaceous peonies are the most common type and are characterized by their herbaceous stems that die back to the ground in winter. Tree peonies have woody stems and can grow up to 10 feet tall, with some varieties blooming for over a century. Intersectional peonies are a hybrid between herbaceous and tree peonies, combining the best of both types – large blooms and strong stems.

Planting Peonies

When it comes to planting peonies, timing is key. The ideal time to plant bare root peony divisions is in late summer or early fall, while container-grown peon

Understanding Peonies

Before we dive into the specifics of peony care, it’s essential to appreciate the diversity within the genus Paeonia. Peonies can be broadly classified into three types:

  1. Herbaceous peonies: These die back to the ground each winter and re-sprout in the spring.
  2. Tree peonies: As the name suggests, they grow as small shrubs and do not die back in winter.
  3. Itoh peonies: A hybrid between herbaceous and tree peonies, offering the best of both worlds.

Regardless of the type, peonies thrive in cooler climates (Hardiness Zones 3 through 8) and can live for more than a century with proper care.

Planting Peonies

When to Plant

The best time to plant peonies is in the fall, allowing them ample time to establish their root system before winter. For gardeners in cooler climates, planting can extend into late September or early October.


Select a sunny spot that receives at least six hours of sunlight daily. Peonies planted in too much shade will produce weak stems and fewer blooms.


Peonies prefer well-draining, fertile soil with a neutral to slightly alkaline pH. Before planting, enrich your soil with compost or well-rotted manure to boost nutrient levels.

Planting Depth

For herbaceous and Itoh peonies, plant the roots so that the eyes (small red buds) are no more than 2 inches below the soil surface. Tree peonies should be planted with the graft union 4 to 6 inches below the soil line to encourage stronger root growth.

Caring for Peonies


While peonies are relatively drought tolerant once established, they benefit from regular watering during their growing and blooming phases. Aim for 1 inch of water per week, either from rainfall or supplemental watering.


Feed your peonies in early spring with a low-nitrogen fertilizer to support lush foliage and vibrant blooms. Avoid high-nitrogen fertilizers, which can encourage leaf growth at the expense of flowers.


Herbaceous and Itoh peonies often require staking to prevent their heavy blooms from dragging the plant to the ground. Use peony rings or stakes to keep your plants upright and well-presented.


In the fall, cut herbaceous and Itoh peonies back to ground level to prevent disease. Tree peonies only require removal of dead or broken branches.

Pest and Disease Management

Peonies are relatively hardy and not prone to major pest or disease issues. However, botrytis blight and peony wilt are common fungal diseases that can be prevented by ensuring good air circulation and avoiding overhead watering. Aphids, scale, and thrips can also be occasional pests but are easily managed with insecticidal soap or neem oil.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q: How long do peonies take to bloom?

A: Peonies typically bloom in late spring to early summer. Newly planted peonies may take two to three years to produce their first blooms, but the wait is undoubtedly worth it.

Q: Can peonies grow in pots?

A: While peonies perform best in the ground, herbaceous and Itoh peonies can be grown in large pots with adequate drainage.

Q: Do peonies need to be divided?

A: Peonies rarely need division and can grow undisturbed for decades. However, if you wish to propagate or rejuvenate an old plant, divide peonies in the fall.

Cultivating peonies can be incredibly rewarding, adding a touch of elegance and tradition to your garden for years – even generations – to come. By following this comprehensive care guide, you can ensure your peonies thrive, bringing joy and beauty to your outdoor space.

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Last Update: May 20, 2024